A 32 year review of MMR vaccine finds it
effective, safe and well-tolerated.
Lievano F et al. Vaccine 2012 (ahead of publication)
link to PubMed (9-6-12)
New Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) for
MMR. The first VIS to include a barcode allowing scanning
of selected information to a patient's record or immunization information system.
The Editors of The Lancet, a prominent
medical journal, have retracted a controversial 1998
publication by Andrew Wakefield, et al:
“Following the judgment of the UK General
Medical Council’s Fitness to Practice Panel on Jan
28, 2010, it has become clear that several elements
of the 1998 paper by Wakefield et al are incorrect,
contrary to the findings of an earlier
investigation. In particular, the claims in the
original paper that children were “consecutively
referred” and that investigations were “approved” by
the local ethics committee have been proven to be
false. Therefore we fully retract this paper from
the published record.”
GMC findings |
Lancet retraction (may require password)
In 2004, 10 of the 12 original authors retracted the
interpretation of the paper. (see
Rulings in cases testing MMR/thimerosal-autism
The assigned Special Masters of the United
States Court of Federal Claims filed decisions on
February 12, 2009 in the three test cases that
allege MMR vaccines and thimerosal-containing
vaccines can combine to cause autism.
The three cases are Cedillo v. HHS,
Hazlehurst v. HHS, and Snyder v. HHS.
A table briefly describing the decisions as well as
links to the entire text is available
Lack of Association between Measles Virus
Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy
In a rigorous study, investigators from
three institutions found no differences between
children with autism and gastrointestinal disorders
and control children who had gastrointestinal
disorders, but not autism. There was no difference
in the results of testing for measles vaccine virus
in the intestine or with the timing of MMR and the
onset of gastrointestinal disorders.
These findings disprove the original hypothesis
about measles vaccine and autism and refute an
earlier study by one of the investigators. Parents
should be confident in giving their children MMR as
recommended by numerous experts and advisory groups.
Horning M et al. "Lack of Association
between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with
Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study. PLoS ONE
link to article (08/2008)
A Canadian study reconfirms older findings ruling out
an association between pervasive developmental
disorder [PDD] (including autism) and high levels of ethylmercury exposures or MMR vaccines.
The specific findings by Fombonne et al in
* Autism and Thimerosal - thimerosal exposure was
unrelated to the increasing trend in PDD prevalence.
* Autism and MMR - no association between MMR
vaccinations (both 1 and 2 doses) and autism or PDD
The study found the highest rates of PDD in children
with no thimerosal exposure (from vaccines). The
study also noted a slight decrease in the rates of
MMR vaccine at the same time as rates of PDD were
Fombonne E et al. "Pervasive Developmental
Disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence
and Links With Immunizations." Pediatrics
The US FDA
has approved Merck's combination vaccine, ProQuad®
[Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella (Oka/Merck)
Virus Vaccine Live], for simultaneous vaccination
against measles, mumps, rubella (German measles) and
varicella (chickenpox) in children 12 months to 12
years of age.
MMR Vaccination and
Pervasive Developmental Disorders: no association.
Smeeth, et al report that MMR vaccination is
not associated with an increased risk of pervasive
developmental disorders (PDDs). The authors studied
1294 affected children and 4469 controls in the
General Practioners Database in the United Kingdom
and "We have found no convincing evidence that MMR
vaccination increases the risk of autism or other
Institute of Medicine
reports that MMR and thimerosal do not cause autism.
The IOM committee concluded that the body of
epidemiological evidence favors rejection of a
causal relationship between the MMR vaccine and
autism and between thimerosal-containing vaccines
and autism. [link]
May 17, 2004
Controversial Interpretation of 1998 Lancet Paper
Linking MMR Vaccine to A New Syndrome of Bowel
Disease and Autism.
the authors and the Lancet editor. March 6,
an Unreported Conflict of Interest and Problems With
Reporting in Wakefield's 1998 Autism-MMR Study.
Information on the
investigation by The Lancet into problems with
Andrew Wakefield's study. February 27, 2004.
Measles, Mumps, and
rubella vaccination and bowel problems or
developmental regression in children with autism:
This paper by Taylor
et al in the [Feb 16 2003] BMJ adds to the growing
body of evidence that show no involvement of MMR
vaccine in the development of autism. The authors
report on their investigation of 473 and conclude
that their data shows neither a "new variant' form
of MMR-associated autism nor evidence of MMR
contributing to the onset of autism.
MMR and autistic
enterocolitis: consistent epidemiological failure to
find an association.
In News &
Commentary in Molecular Psychiatry [Feb 2003], Fombonne and Cook review a recent paper by Taylor et
al on MMR and Autistic Enterocolitis. Fombonne and
Cook review Taylor's paper as well as the hypothesis
by Wakefield et al that speculated about a
connection between MMR and autism and ask, "How many
more well-powered epidemiological investigations ...
will be necessary for this hypothesis to be
Link | Molecular
study of Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccination and
A Danish study provides strong
evidence against a causal relationship between MMR
vaccination and autism. Madsen et al. NEJM 2002;347(19):1477-82.
PubMed Abstract |
The risk of seizures
after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles,
mumps, and rubella vaccine.
et al find
no long-term adverse consequences from febrile
seizures following administration of DTP and MMR
Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From
the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations
Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June
12-13, 2000. Pediatrics 2001;107(5). Halsey,
Neal A.; Hyman, Susan L.
The writers of this report reviewed over 1,000
references in the medical literature and determined
that the available research does not support the
hypothesis that MMR vaccine causes autism, autism
spectrum disorders or inflammatory bowel disease. A
complete copy of this report is available in the
online version of
Institute of Medicine
(IOM) Committee Rejects Causal Relationship Between
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autism Spectrum
At a public briefing on April 23, 2001 the
Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Committee on
Immunization Safety Review released a report in
which they conclude that the evidence favors
rejection of a causal relationship between the
measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism
spectrum disorder, commonly known as autism.
genetics, not MMR vaccine, determines autism (AAP
News December 1999) by Charles G. Prober, MD,
No evidence for
measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated
inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year
prospective study. (Lancet
This Finnish study
shows details of the 31 children who developed
gastrointestinal symptoms after approximately three
million were vaccinated. Dr. Peltola et al, after
more than 10 years following adverse events
associated with MMR vaccine, found no data showing
an association between MMR vaccine and developmental
disorders or inflammatory bowel disease.
No evidence to
support an association between measles, measles
vaccination and Crohn's disease.
in June 6, 1998 British Medical Journal.
immunisation has not affected incidence in England.
- Crohn's disease has
not increased in Finland.
- Age specific prevalences do not suggest
association with in utero exposure.